When a library B in Java depends on another library A through the Maven repository system, library B needs two identifiers to find classes in library A:
The Maven coordinates of library A, following the form
group_ID:artifact_ID:version; for example
com.google.guava:guava:26.0-jre. The Maven coordinates are used to locate the
library’s files in a Maven repository. For each pair of group ID and artifact ID
(hereafter referenced as “Maven ID”), the user’s build system (for example
Maven or Gradle) selects exactly one version to put on
the classpath. Different build systems use different rules for selecting
from multiple versions.
The fully-qualified class names of the classes in library A. These classes
generally share a Java package (the package as defined in
statements, for example
package com.google.common.collect). The classpath,
which is formed from Maven artifacts and possibly non-Maven sources, is
searched for each fully-qualified class name at runtime.
When breaking changes are introduced to a library between major version 1 and major version 2, a choice needs to be made: to rename or not rename? This question applies to both items listed above, the Maven ID (1) and the Java package (2).
When making a breaking change, take one of the following approaches:
If the new library surface is delivered under a new Java package, either use a different Maven ID (different group ID or artifact ID) or bundle the old and new packages together under the original Maven ID.
If the breaking change is made in-place and the Java package is kept the same, use the same Maven ID (same group ID and same artifact ID).
There is a tradeoff between these two options. If a library breaks the surface for a method that is not used by any consumers, this does not cause any diamond dependency conflicts, so a package rename is a high-cost transition with no real benefit. Conversely, if a library breaks the surface for a method that is used by many clients, this causes numerous diamond dependency conflicts, so a package rename is preferable. Generally, the wider the usage of the features that need to break, the higher the value from renaming the Java package.
Whether or not you make breaking changes, don’t publish the same classes under multiple Maven IDs; this creates a situation where artifacts have “overlapping classes.” Another best practice, JLBP-5, covers how consumers need to handle such problematic scenarios — don’t create new cases!
Corollary 1: Once you have published under a particular Maven ID, you are stuck with it until you rename your Java package.
Corollary 2: Don’t fork an artifact owned by someone else and publish classes with the same fully-qualified classnames.
Consider the following renaming scenario:
g1:a1:2.0.0. (Only one of the versions will be present on the
classpath even if both are in the dependency tree.)
g2:a2:2.0.0. (Both versions can be present on the classpath.)
Given this scenario, here are the possible combinations of renamings:
Case 1: Keep Maven ID. This approach can result in diamond dependency conflicts because different branches of a dependency tree can depend on different major versions, and the build system (Maven or Gradle) will only choose one of them. Users are forced to change their code between versions, but only for the library surface that was changed.
Case 2: Rename Maven ID. Build systems can unexpectedly pull in the JAR files of both the
old artifact (
g1:a1:1.0.0) and the new artifact (
g2:a2:2.0.0) into their class path
through transitive dependencies, because Maven artifact
resolution treats the two artifacts as distinct. This results in
“overlapping classes” since they have classes with the same fully-qualified
path. This can lead to runtime exceptions such as
and can be a compile-time error in Java 9 and later. NEVER DO THIS.
Case 3: Keep Maven ID. The classes from
g1:a1:2.0.0 could be used together, but since the two artifacts share the
Maven group ID and artifact ID, the build system adds only one of them to the class path.
Users must change their code to add references to the new version.
It is strictly better to either also rename the Maven ID (case 4)
or to keep the Maven ID and also bundle the old package (case 5), so that
the major versions can be used side by side.
Case 4: Rename Maven ID. The two major versions can be used side by side, allowing users to incrementally transition from the old to the new version, or even use them side by side indefinitely if necessary. Transitioning fully to the new version in Java requires code changes between versions, even for classes whose surface remains the same, because all import statements need to be updated. There are no diamond dependency conflicts using this approach, but adoption can be blocked if there are consuming libraries that have not also created new major versions that can accept new types from this library. This approach is essentially like creating a new library.
Case 5: Bundle old and new in the existing Maven ID. Like case 4, the two versions can be used side by side. The impact is the same as case 4, except with the slight drawback that the user’s class space is polluted with both versions, whether both versions are used or not. The benefit of this approach is that users don’t have to think about which Maven artifact to use and can just keep advancing the version.
Given the consequences, maintainers should avoid case 2 (renaming the Maven ID while keeping the Java package the same) and case 3 (renaming the Java package while keeping the Maven ID the same). Among the remaining three cases, the impact of a Maven ID change is minuscule compared to the impact of a Java package rename, so the remaining discussion focuses only on the Java package rename.
The cost of diamond dependency conflicts due to not renaming has to be weighed against the cost of updating import statements everywhere the library is used. Let’s take examples from two extremes.
A library with 10,000 references throughout 100 packages, and which has a function with one reference in a leaf of the dependency graph that is deleted between major version 1 and major version 2.
In this case, moving 10,000 references to a new package in a large dependency tree would be a very expensive endeavor. In contrast, updating the one place that references the deleted function to use the new function is considerably less work and can be rolled out much more quickly. In this scenario, it is clearly superior to keep the same Java package.
A library with 10,000 references throughout 100 packages, and a large refactoring breaks the surface of 5,000 of those references between major version 1 and major version 2.
In this case, changing consuming code would be a large undertaking. Not all maintainers will feel it’s worth migrating to the new major version. If the library author decides to keep the same Java package, the ecosystem has to bifurcate to handle code paths requiring one major version or the other. Some projects keep using the old version. Other projects upgrade to the new version of the dependency. Therefore, there will be diamond dependency conflicts. In this scenario, it is clearly superior to rename the Java package, and treat the new major version as a new library.
Note that both of these examples are for a library with a large number of places that reference it. The fewer places that a library is referenced, and the closer to the leaves of the graph that the library is referenced, the less impact there is to the decision.
Case 1 - Keep Java package name and Maven ID
Case 2 - Keep Java package name, rename Maven ID
Case 4 - Rename both Java package and Maven ID
Case 5 - Bundle old and new packages in the existing Maven ID